The history of Bonn's Pharmacy is closely intertwined with the development of Chemistry and Biology at the University of Bonn. The "Gymnasium Clementinum zu Bonn" was founded in the first half of the 18th century and later became Bonn's first "Kurkölnische Universität". Initially, there was no independent curriculum of pharmacy. Within the Medical Faculty, Dr Crevelet had been appointed a professor for "Arzneigelehrtheit" and Botany, and Konstantin von Schönbeck received as a professor of Physics and Natural History at the Philosophical Faculty a PhD of Medicinal Arts in 1784. A significant advancement was the assignment of the physician Ferdinand Wurzer to the Chair of Chemistry in 1793. As no laboratories were available, the chemical experiments were conducted in a pharmacy. The "Kurkölnische Universität" was abolished in 1798 by the French.

In 1818, the Prussian-Rhenish University was founded and later named "Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität" in 1828, which has remained its name until today. The university's original statutes included a provision for a Faculty of Medicine, which included a Chair of Pharmacology, Pharmacy, and Pure and Medicinal Chemistry. The first professor of Chemistry, Pharmacy, and Physics was Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner, who joined the University of Erlangen in 1821. One of his most notable collaborators, Justus von Liebig, who had previously studied Chemistry in Bonn, accompanied him. Kastner had only a small private laboratory at his disposal in Bonn.

"Pharmaceutical Apparatus", Pharmaceutical Chemistry

In 1825, Theodor Friedrich Ludwig Nees von Esenbeck, a botanist, established a small pharmacy laboratory within the university's main building. He funded the laboratory, which met the standards set by the "Regulations for the State Examinations of Medical Personnel," almost entirely on his own. By 1833, the laboratory, known as the "Pharmaceutical Apparatus," received government support and was primarily used to train medical students. After Nees von Esenbeck's passing, Prof. Carl Wilhelm Bergemann ran the "Pharmaceutical Apparatus" from 1838 to 1867.
It is worth mentioning that pharmacist Ludwig Clamor Marquart established 1837 a pharmaceutical laboratory in Bonn's "Kellersche Apotheke" with state approval, even before the university's development in Pharmacy. Although it had been closed down in 1845, it had already trained around 150 pharmacists.
Carl Friedrich Mohr succeeded Bergemann in 1867 as Extraordinarius for Pharmacy and head of the "Pharmaceutical Apparatus" in the Chemical Institute. Mohr's contribution to Analytical Chemistry was the development of dimensional analysis. He also provided commentaries on the Prussian Pharmacopoeia. In the Pharmaceutical Institute located at "An der Immenburg 4, Bonn-Endenich", a portrait of Mohr and his wife can be found. In 1868, August Kekulé moved into the new Chemical Institute beside the Poppelsdorf Palace. His statue still stands in front of the building. After Mohr died in 1879, the "Pharmaceutical Apparatus" moved to the new Chemical Institute from the university's main building. Otto Wallach, who later won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1910 for his work on terpenes, became associate professor. Wallach served as the head of the "Pharmaceutical Apparatus" for a decade before becoming a full professor of Chemistry at the University of Göttingen. During this period, Richard Anschütz held a lectureship for pharmacists in Bonn. Meanwhile, Heinrich Klinger was appointed to an extraordinariate position, with the responsibility of teaching Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Toxicology, as well as supervising practical exercises. After Klinger left for the University of Königsberg in 1895, Alfred Partheil took over his position. Anschütz later took over the administration of the "Pharmaceutical Apparatus", while Georg August Frerichs took over the extraordinariate for Pharmaceutical Chemistry in 1903. Under Frerichs' leadership, the "Pharmaceutical Apparatus" was transformed into the Pharmaceutical Institute in January 1925. Frerichs was given the position of leading the Pharmaceutical Chemistry department, which was still located within the Chemical Institute. In 1938, there was a university reform that resulted in the elimination of the Pharmacy programme in Bonn, even though there were still 40 students enrolled in the programme during the summer semester. This was similar to what happened in other universities, including the University of Göttingen and Heidelberg.
The Pharmaceutical Institute was reestablished after World War II, thanks to Paul Pfeiffer, director of the Chemical Institute at that time. Pfeiffer made their rooms available to pharmacists and strongly supported Pharmacy in Bonn. In 1949, Karl Winterfeld from Freiburg became the new director of the Pharmaceutical Institute. He achieved scientific breakthroughs in the field of lupine alkaloids and got a new building at "Kreuzbergweg 26", which was considered generous for its time. The building was inaugurated in 1956 but had to be expanded by 1961. Herbert Jäger worked at the institute and qualified as a professor in 1953. He later held a C3 professorship. In 1954, Melanie Rink became one of the first women in Germany to habilitate in Pharmaceutical Chemistry. She was appointed associate professor in 1960 and headed the Department of Drug Testing at the Pharmaceutical Institute until her untimely death in 1965. In 1963, Felix Zymalkowski from Hamburg succeeded Winterfeld as the new director of the institute. Hermann Josef Roth from Braunschweig succeeded Mrs Rink as a full professor.
In the late 1960s, there was a surge of pharmacy students that led to overcrowding at the institute located at "Kreuzbergweg 26". To address this issue, a disposal building was hastily built in Endenich (AVZ II), at "An der Immenburg 4". This new building also provided space for Pharmaceutical Technology. Professor Roth was appointed the head of Pharmaceutical Chemistry at Endenich, while Professor Zymalkowski remained at Kreuzbergweg.
Gerhard Rücker from Münster took over from Zymalkowski in 1979 and new C3 professorships were established. Peter Pachaly (1971), Erhard Röder (1971), and Gottfried Blaschke from Kiel (1974) were among the appointed professors. Eberhard Reimann (since 1973), August-Wilhelm Frahm (since 1975), and Kurt Fickentscher (since 1974) were also active as professors. In 1980, they were transferred to C3 professorships. The Department of Pharmaceutical Technology gained another C3 professorship after Blaschke's departure to Münster in 1983. Following Fickentscher's death in a plane crash in 1984, the position was held by Detlef Geffken from Braunschweig until his departure to Hamburg, and then by Jochen Lehmann from Hamburg since 1990. Priv.-Doz. Dr. Peter Tinapp Roth followed a call to Tübingen in 1983 at the age of 51, and Peter Nickel from Berlin succeeded him. In 1989, Dr. Werner Meise, who had extensive experience at the Institute of Pharmacy, was appointed as a highly qualified professor. He had previously worked at the Pharmaceutical Institute for a considerable amount of time and was appointed as an associate professor. In 1990, Ulrike Holzgrabe from Kiel succeeded Frahm, who was appointed to Freiburg in 1989. Peter Gmeiner from Munich succeeded Prof. Röder, who retired in 1994. Gmeiner followed a call to Erlangen in 1996.
In 1996, Rücker became an emeritus professor. Following his departure, Christa Müller from Würzburg took over the position as Chair of Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the Institute on Kreuzbergweg in 1998. From 2001 to 2004, she also served as the university's prorector for planning and finance. Meise retired in 1996, while Pachaly retired in 1998 and Nickel became an emeritus in 1999. In the same year, Harald Schweim was appointed as an associate professor after being rehabilitated from Berlin to Bonn. He was previously the head of the DiMDI in Cologne and president of the BfArM in Bonn. Ulrike Holzgrabe, who served as the prorector and chairwoman of the Commission for Teaching, Studies, and Academic Reform from 1997 to 1999, accepted a chair position in Würzburg in 1999. Michael Gütschow from Leipzig succeeded her in 2001. Lehmann accepted an appointment to the Chair of Pharmaceutical Chemistry in Jena in 2002, and since 2003, Gerd Bendas from Halle-Wittenberg has held the position. Michael Wiese from Halle-Wittenberg was appointed as Nickel's successor to the Chair of Pharmaceutical Chemistry in Endenich in 2000.
The Endenich Institute underwent its first renovation in 1994. The Kreuzbergweg Institute in Poppelsdorf, which was over 50 years old, no longer met technical requirements and regulations. Therefore, an extension to the Endenich Institute was planned in 2000 to accommodate the Poppelsdorf Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department. However, plans changed in 1996, and the extension was designed to accommodate Pharmaceutical Technology and Pharmacology and Toxicology. The old building in Endenich was to be renovated again for the Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, but various difficulties caused delays. Finally, in August 2006, the Pharmaceutical Institute was reunified after the final renovation.
In 2010, a new position of a Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry was established and Diana Imhof from Jena was appointed to the role. Mrs Imhof's success was evident in 2016 when she created the Pharmaceutical Biochemistry and Bioanalytics department during her contract negotiations. Recently, Finn Hansen from Leipzig replaced Michael Wiese, who retired in 2019.
Habilitations have taken place since 1990. Detlef Manns was habilitated in 1997, followed by Michael Neugebauer in 1998, Matthias Kassack in 2003, Daniela Gündisch in 2004 and Anke Schiedel in 2013. In 2006, Kassack accepted a C3 professorship in Pharmaceutical Chemistry in Düsseldorf. Mrs. Gündisch became an assistant professor at the University of Hawaii, U.S.A. in 2008.

Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Biology

In the past century, pharmacists were trained in medicinal botany, which was deemed significant. One such botanist was Nees von Esenbeck. Marquart's private pharmaceutical institute included lectures on General Botany (Prof. Treviranus) in the summer semester and Medical-Pharmaceutical Botany (Dr Seubert) in the winter semester at the university. In addition, there were demonstrations of living plants (Dr Seubert) and botanical field trips during the summer semester. Botanists continued to educate pharmacy students in botany and pharmacognosy for several decades. In 1949, Maximilian Steiner from Munich was appointed to a newly established extraordinariate in the Botanical Institute and given the responsibility of teaching pharmacists "Systematic Botany and Pharmacognosy." Steiner initiated a new development of pharmacognosy at the University of Bonn. In 1951, he was appointed full professor for Pharmacognosy, and the Pharmacognostic Institute, presently known as the Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, was founded. The institute was originally located at "Nussallee 2". However, in 1964, it moved to a new building at "Nussallee 6" to accommodate the growing number of students. In 1971, changes in licensing regulations led to the creation of a second professorship for Pharmaceutical Biology, which was filled by Karl-Werner Glombitza from Aachen in 1974. Horst Kating from Marburg replaced Steiner in 1973, and Eckhard Leistner from Münster took over in 1983. From 1989 to 1992, the institute underwent significant renovations and modernisation to become a state-of-the-art research and training facility for Pharmaceutical Biology. Since 1971, part of the institute has been located in the "Allgemeines Verfügungszentrum" (AVZ I). Karl Werner Glombitza retired in 1999, and Gabriele König from Braunschweig was appointed to the position. In 2006, Evi Kostenis from 7TM Pharma in Copenhagen succeeded Eckhard Leistner.
Ludger Beerhues, Werner Knöss, and Michael Keusgen completed three habilitations between 1990 and now. In 1996, Beerhues finished his habilitation, followed by Knöss in 1997 and Keusgen in 1999. Beerhues was then appointed to a C3 professorship in Pharmaceutical Biology at TU Braunschweig in 2000, while Keusgen received a C3 professorship in Pharmaceutical Chemistry in Marburg in 2003.

Galenics, Pharmaceutical Technology

The Pharmaceutical Institute created a galenics department after rebuilding from the war, which was headed by Fritz Gstirner. As Pharmaceutical Technology became more important, Fritz Müller from Kiel was appointed as a full professor in 1971 and transformed the Endenich Institute into a modern research and training facility. In 1983, Hans Peter Merkle from Heidelberg became the C3 professor of Pharmaceutical Technology and went to Frankfurt in 1987. In 1988 Richard Süverkrüp became his successor who retired in 2007, succeeded by Alf Lamprecht from Besançon. Klaus-Jürgen Steffens from Braunschweig was appointed to the professorship in 1989, the same year Müller became professor emeritus. As result of contract negotiations Lamprecht became the successor of Klaus-Jürgen Steffens in 2012. Karl G. Wagner took over for Lamprecht in the same year. In 2002, Pharmaceutical Technology relocated to new rooms in the "Gerhard-Domagk-Straße" building after completing the replacement of the old institute on Kreuzbergweg.
Two habilitations have been completed since 1990: Manfred Wolf in 1995 and Hubert Rein in 2004.

Pharmacology and Toxicology

Before the introduction of the Approbationsordnung in 1989, pharmacists obtained their education in pharmacology from the Pharmacological Institute of the Medical Faculty. However, due to the expansion of pharmacology education and new licensing regulations requiring a mandatory demonstration course, changes were necessary. The Pharmacy Section created a separate department named "Pharmacology and Toxicology" within the Pharmaceutical Institute. This was a significant challenge that required the contributions of all departments within the Pharmacy Section, as the new department needed to be established with its own personnel and material resources, without significant assistance from the university or state. In 1992, Klaus Mohr from Kiel was appointed to a C3 professorship in pharmacology and toxicology.
The following habilitations have taken place since 1990: Martin Pfaffendorf (1996), Bob Wilffert (rehabilitated from Frankfurt), and Christian Tränkle (2000).

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

The extension of the licensing regulation for pharmacists in 1971 made microbiology a mandatory subject for pharmacy students, leading to the establishment of a Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology at the Institute of Medical Microbiology that same year. In 1974, Bernd Wiedemann was appointed to the C3 professorship for Pharmaceutical Microbiology. He retired in 2004 and was succeeded by Hans-Georg Sahl. Currently, Tanja Schneider is in charge of training pharmacy students in this discipline.

Since 1990, there have been several habilitations, including Peter Heisig's habilitation in pharmaceutical biology and microbiology in 1997. He later became the chair of this subject at the University of Hamburg in 2000.

Clinical Pharmacy

In 2000, updated licensing regulations introduced clinical pharmacy as a new subject in pharmacy studies. This aimed at enhancing patient-oriented education and adapting to the evolving professional profile of pharmacists. The University of Bonn was the first German university to establish a C3 professorship in Clinical Pharmacy in 1999, with Ulrich Jaehde from Berlin appointed as successor to Peter Gmeiner. Jaehde built up a Clinical Pharmacy research group which was initially integrated into the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Endenich. In 2004, the professorship was officially transferred to an independent department within the Pharmaceutical Institute.

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry and Bioanalytics

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Drug Regulatory Affairs

A continuing education Master course in the field of Drug Regulatory Affairs was created back in 1999 under Karl Werner Glombitza's leadership. The course was sponsored by the German Society for Regulatory Affairs. In 2004, the first-ever professorship for this subject in Europe came into existence in Bonn and was taken up by Harald Schweim, who was previously the President of the BfArM (Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices) in Bonn. In 2019, Werner Knöss succeeded him.

Pharmacy Diploma Programme

Back in 1997, the Pharmacy Section decided to create a diploma programme for pharmacists, which was since then only established at universities in the former East Germany. The University of Bonn awarded approximately 182 students with the academic degree of Diplom-Pharmazeut, with Karl Werner Glombitza serving as the chairman of the examination board, even after his retirement. However, in the winter semester of 2008/ 2009, the diploma programme was replaced by the master's programme "Drug Research".

Master's Programme "Drug Research"

The "Drug Research" master's programme was introduced in the winter semester of 2008/ 2009. It replaced the diploma programme in pharmacy and is available for graduates who have passed the 2nd state examination in pharmacy, as well as bachelor's degree holders from natural science, pharmacy-related, and medical degree programmes.

Research Training Groups

From 2001 to 2010, the Pharmacy Section had a Research Training Group 677 "Structure and Molecular Interaction as the Basis of Drug Action" which was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). In the winter semester 2008/09 the NRW Research School BIOTECH-PHARMA was established, also with major participation of the Pharmacy Section.

Pharma-Zentrum Bonn (PZB)

In 2008, the Pharma-Zentrum was founded by the University of Bonn to serve as a research centre for innovative drugs and pharmacotherapy. The centre comprises over 20 working groups from the fields of medicine and pharmacy to participate in interdisciplinary research projects in the area of pharmaceutical sciences. Some of the successful initiatives of the centre include the Neuroallianz joint project, which was supported by BMBF, and the BIOTECH-PHARMA research school in NRW.

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